Military Activity in the Midwest
1) Grand Portage. A Major fur trade center. A small contingent of the King's 8th was stationed here in early 1778.
During the Revolution.
2) La Baye (Green Bay). An important trade center and home of Charles de Langlade, who led a band of Midwestern Indians east to aid Burgoyne in 1778.
3) Portage, Wisconsin. Important junction point for fur trade traffic.
4) Prairie du Chien. Fur trade depot and recruiting ground for British-led military expeditions.
5) Turkey Creek. The farthest west action of the Revolution took place here.
6) St. Louis. Spanish military site. The makeshift fort located here was attacked by British-led forces in May of 1780. The assault failed and the attackers retreated up the Illinois River.
7) Kaskaskia -- Fort Gage. The British garrison at Forte du Chartres occupied this fort after the former was abandoned in 1772. British troops (the 18th or Royal Irish) occupied the fort until May of 1776 when they were ordered to withdraw to Detroit. Clark moved in and captured the town in July of 1778.
8) Cahokia. Important trade center. Captured by George Rogers Clark in July of 1778. A British expedition attacked Cahokia on May 26, 1780, but quickly moved on in an attempt to take St. Louis.
9) Peoria. A skirmish occurred just north of modern Peoria between loyal Indians and traders in 1780.
10) Chicago Portage. A major access point into the Mississippi valley.
11) Milwaukee. The Indian village here was of the few in the midwest who supported the Congressional cause.
12) Vincennes -- Fort Sackville. The British abandoned the fort early in the war and it was immediately occupied by Congressional forces. It was retaken by a British expedition in May of 1777, then recaptured by George Rogers Clark in 1779.
13) Martin's Station. Skirmish in 1780.
14) Bryan's Station. Skirmish in 1782.
15) Blue Licks. Kentucky militia ambushed and defeated in 1782.
16) Piqua. Clark leads a force against the Indian towns near here in 1782.
17) Fort Laurens. Built and abandoned in 1778.
18) Fort Pitt/Dunmore. Important British supply depot early in the war. Americans occupied the abandoned fort in 1776 and it was an important supply depot for American operations along the frontier.
19) Fort Wayne. A small force led by La Balme captured the British post near this site in 1780.
20) Most of La Balme's retreating force is killed by Loyal Miami Indians.
21) The rest of La Balme's force is overtaken and killed by the Miami near the present site of Michigan City.
22) St. Joseph. Several skirmishes took place here. The fort was attacked by the Spanish in 1781 (also see March 1996 issue).
23) Detroit. British headquarters in the Northwest. Several raids and expeditions were launched from Detroit.
24) Fort Michilimackinac. The fort at Michilimackinac was the "front door" to the fur trade of the Mississippi valley. The French built the first fort there, and the British held this important site throughout the war. The fort on Mackinac island was one of the last surrendered after peace treaty was signed in 1783, in fact the British did not give it up until 1796 -- 13 years after peace was declared.